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擅用抗生素可能害了孩子
2020-01-11 17:14  www.phpfang.com

  气温骤降,不少孩子出现了发热、咳嗽、腹泻的症状。一部分家长会选择带着孩子去医院就诊,还有一部分家长认为病情无大碍,自行给宝宝服用抗生素。天津市儿童医院药剂科主任孙燕燕提示,家长擅自给孩子服用抗生素虽然有时会有效果,但在一定程度上存在危害孩子身体健康的隐患。

The temperature plummeted, and many children developed symptoms of fever, cough and diarrhea. Some parents will choose to take their children to the hospital, while others will take antibiotics on their own. Sun Yanyan, director of pharmacy at Tianjin Children's Hospital, suggested that parents who unauthorizedly give their children antibiotics although sometimes effective, but to a certain extent there are hidden dangers to children's health.

  抗生素不是万能的,对于一些常见疾病使用抗生素是起不到治疗作用的,所以,家长们非常有必要了解抗生素的使用误区。

Antibiotics aren't all-powerful, so it's very necessary for parents to understand the misunderstanding of antibiotics.

  感冒、腹泻用抗生素?实际上大多数情况下是没有必要的。普通感冒主要由病毒感染引起,使用抗生素是无效的,并且普通感冒有自限性,对症护理才是关键。引起腹泻最常见的原因也是病毒感染,孩子在出现腹泻时,首先要预防和纠正脱水,滥用抗生素可能会破坏肠道菌群,加重腹泻。

Cold, diarrhea with antibiotics? In fact, most cases are unnecessary. The common cold is mainly caused by viral infection, the use of antibiotics is ineffective, and the common cold has self-limiting, symptomatic care is the key. The most common cause of diarrhea is also viral infection, children in the presence of diarrhea, the first to prevent and correct dehydration, abuse of antibiotics may destroy the intestinal flora, aggravated diarrhea.

  输液的效果好?还有一些家长遇到孩子生病,就会十分焦虑,总想着输点液快点好起来。其实,这些家长忽略了输液本身可能带来的危害,输液是一种有创伤的治疗,可能发生的常见不良反应有局部刺激、溶血反应、过敏反应等。

The effect of infusion is good? Some parents will be very anxious when their children are ill, always thinking of getting better. In fact, these parents ignore the harm that infusion itself may bring, infusion is a traumatic treatment, the common adverse reactions that may occur are local irritation, hemolytic reaction, allergic reaction and so on.

  擅自调整服药剂量?有些家长认为给孩子多吃药就会好得快一些,便擅自加大药物的剂量。要知道,随意加大药量可能会达到中毒剂量,因此,服药必须遵循药品说明书或遵循医嘱,确保安全剂量。孩子的症状减轻了,家长就不给孩子吃药了,这种现象屡见不鲜。服用抗生素需要根据说明书或遵医嘱,按照规范的疗程和剂量使用。细菌感染时,服用几天抗生素症状会明显减轻,但此时细菌还未彻底清除,如果此刻停药,存在病情加重的风险,更甚者细菌会对该药物产生耐药性。另有一些家长担心服用抗生素会出现较大的不良反应,擅自减量。可是您知道吗?药物发挥相应的作用,是有一定的浓度要求的,减量用药不仅会影响药效,也可能导致细菌耐药,因此服药必须达到一定的疗程方可保证药效。

Unauthorized adjustment of dosage? Some parents think it's better to give their children more medicine and increase the dosage without authorization. To know that the random increase in the dosage may reach the toxic dose, therefore, the medication must follow the drug instructions or follow the doctor's advice to ensure a safe dose. Children's symptoms are alleviated, parents do not give their children to take medicine, this phenomenon is common. Take antibiotics according to the instructions or according to the doctor's instructions, according to the standard course of treatment and dosage. When a bacterial infection occurs, the symptoms of antibiotics are significantly reduced for a few days, but the bacteria have not been completely removed at this time, and if the drug is stopped at the moment, there is a risk of exacerbation, and even bacterial resistance to the drug. Other parents are worried about taking antibiotics will have greater adverse reactions, unauthorized reduction. But you know what? Drugs play a corresponding role, there is a certain concentration of requirements, the reduction of drug use will not only affect the efficacy, but also may lead to bacterial resistance, so the drug must reach a certain course of treatment to ensure the efficacy.

  首先,就是耐药性。细菌耐药是指细菌对于抗菌药物作用的耐受性,耐药一旦产生,药物的作用明显下降。正如人们常常有这样的困惑,之前用这个药管用,现在不起作用了。

First, drug resistance. Bacterial resistance refers to the tolerance of bacteria to the action of antimicrobial agents, once the drug resistance is produced, the effect of the drug is obviously reduced. Just as people often have this kind of confusion, it used to work and now it doesn't work.

  其次,有可能对患者造成二重感染。人体内的细菌数量大约是人体细胞数量的10倍,正常机体条件下,维持着生态平衡;滥用抗生素不仅消灭了致病菌,也会伤害保护人体的正常菌群,造成菌群失调。广谱抗生素(能够抵抗大部分细菌的药物)的长期使用,使敏感菌受到抑制,不敏感菌趁机在体内繁殖生长,造成二重感染。

Secondly, it is possible to cause double infection to patients. The number of bacteria in the human body is about 10 times the number of human cells, under normal conditions, maintain ecological balance; abuse of antibiotics not only eliminate pathogenic bacteria, but also harm the protection of the normal flora of the human body, resulting in dysbiosis. The long-term use of broad-spectrum antibiotics (drugs that can resist most bacteria) inhibits sensitive bacteria, and insensitive bacteria take the opportunity to reproduce and grow in the body, causing double infection.

  一方面,要先确定适应症,诊断为细菌性感染者才有指征使用抗生素,避免在家中自行使用。另一方面,对于年幼的儿童,要个体化给药。儿童不是缩小版的成人,对于剂量选择、调整均应个体化给药,“因人而异、量体裁衣”,请家长务必严格遵医嘱使用。(记者李岩)

On the one hand, it is necessary to first determine the indications, the diagnosis of bacterial infection before the indication of antibiotic use, to avoid self-use in the home. On the other hand, for young children, individualized drug delivery is required. Children are not reduced version of the adult, for dose selection, adjustment should be individualized administration,\" vary from person to person, tailor-made \", parents must strictly follow the doctor's instructions to use. (Reporter Li Yan)